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Empowering Ohioans with disabilities through employment, disability determinations, and independence.


Section VII. Students with Disabilities

In alignment with WIOA requirements around services to students with disabilities and funding requirements for pre-employment transition services, OOD provides services to students with disabilities to support their successful transition from school to work. This CSNA addresses these efforts by attempting to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the job goals for SYWE participants and what kinds of experiences have been provided?

  2. How are SYWE programs distributed geographically and how does that compare with the location of students with SYWE or Summer Youth Career Exploration on their VR plan?

  3. What services for students with disabilities are most likely to lead to improved employment outcomes?

  4. Is the number of students served by OOD proportionate to the number of students with IEPs in Ohio based on Ohio Department of Education data?

  5. What percentage of youth with disabilities in Ohio are enrolled in SSI and how many are removed each year due to age-18 redetermination? How can OOD ensure that youth with disabilities are aware of this information and how can we engage them in VR services to better prepare them for employment and independence?

Job Goals and Work Experiences for SYWE Participants

Job Goals. Summer Youth Work Experiences are intended to be group- based services utilized to teach students with disabilities vocational skills and appropriate work behaviors. SYWE services may be provided on a 1-to-1 (one provider staff to one participant) basis to accommodate disability-related needs or based on a specific employment goal as identified by the VR Counselor. (OOD – VR Provider Manual)

It is understood that SYWE services are focused on development of general vocational skills and work behaviors rather than preparation to enter a specific occupation. Still, OOD sought information describing the extent to which work experiences aligned with the most common job goals among SYWE participants. The job goals of individuals who participated in SYWE services from 2015 through 2018 were extracted from the AWARE case management system to identify the most frequent job goals included on those participants’ VR plans. Table 28 below presents a summary of the results.

Table 28 - Top 7 Plan Goals for 2015 - 2018 SYWE Participants

Job Goal Count % of Total
Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other 948 12.4%
Stock Clerks, Sales Floor 661 8.6%
Stock Clerks and Order Fillers 374 4.9%
Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food 341 4.5%
Customer Service Representatives 322 4.2%
Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners 309 4.0%
Retail Salespersons 270 3.5%
All Other Goals 4,431 57.9%
Total 7,656 100.0%

The job goal of Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other appears as the most frequent goal among SYWE participants in each year from 2015 to 2018. Stock Clerks, Sales Floor appears as the second most frequent goal in each year. The remaining job goals listed appear in the top 10 each year in various positions, but combined across years these goals comprise the top seven overall, representing approximately 42 percent of all goals.

Work Experiences. Providers of Summer Youth Work Experiences offer a variety of opportunities for participants to learn general vocational skills and work behaviors. These opportunities encompass multiple types of employment in diverse settings. Table 29 below presents a summary of data provided by VR Program Specialists regarding the types of work experiences offered during the SYWE program in 2018. (OOD - 2018 SYWE Site Collection Tool)

Table 29 - Summer Youth Work Experience Job Types - 2018

Job Type Count % of Total
Sorting/Stocking/Cleaning 379 29.0%
Custodial 192 14.7%
General Duties 135 10.3%
Food Prep/Kitchen 125 9.6%
Landscaping 106 8.1%
Housekeeping/Laundry 100 7.7%
Animal Care 46 3.5%
Customer Service 35 2.7%
Clerical 35 2.7%
Grocery Bagging/Cart Collection 33 2.5%
All Other Jobs 121 9.3%
Total 1,307 100.0%

Although SYWE services are not necessarily intended to prepare participants for work in any specific occupation, there appears to be some alignment between participant job goals and the types of work experiences provided. For example, the top work experience offered (by count of openings) involves sorting and stocking duties. This is closely aligned with the second and third most frequent job goals of SYWE participants. There is also alignment in the areas of food preparation, customer service representatives, and janitorial/custodial work.

Geographic Distribution. Summer Youth Work Experiences were offered in 78 of Ohio’s 88 counties in 2018. The link below provides a map illustrating the count of SYWE openings offered in each county, as well as the count of SYWE participants by county of residence. Openings tend to be concentrated in the larger urban areas of the state, most notably Cuyahoga County (Cleveland) and Franklin County (Columbus). 2018 SYWE Participants reside in 81 of 88 Ohio counties. Consistent with the general distribution of the Ohio population, SYWE participants tend to be concentrated in the larger urban areas of the state; most notably Cuyahoga County (Cleveland) and Franklin County (Columbus).

OOD 2018 Summer Youth Work Experience Openings and Participants Maps

Geographic Balance Ratio. Combining the SYWE openings data with the participant county of residence data allows the development of balance ratios describing the geographic alignment of opportunities with the demand for services. The number of openings in each county was divided into the total number of openings statewide to determine each county’s percentage of total openings. The same method was used to determine each county’s percentage of total participants. The difference between the opening percentage and participant percentage determines each county’s balance ratio. The link below provides a map showing the balance ratio in each county.

OOD 2018 Summer Youth Work Experience Balance Ratio Map

This data is also presented in HTML in Table 30 at the link below. (Table 30 will open in a new window.)

Table 30 - Balance Ratios for Summer Youth Work Experience Services by County - 2018

A balance ratio of 0.0 indicates that the percentage of participants is in exact proportion to the percentage of openings for the selected county. A negative value indicates that the percentage of participants is lower than the percentage of openings. A positive value indicates that the percentage of participants is higher than the percentage of openings. As shown in Table 31 below, only five counties have a balance ratio less than -2.0, and 66 counties are within one percent of perfect balance. This indicates that there is an excellent balance statewide of Summer Youth Work Experience openings to the number of participants seeking that service.

Table 31 - Number of Counties by Balance Ratio of Summer youth Work Experience Services - 2018

Balance Ratio Number of Counties
Less than -2.0 5
-2.0 to -1.1 4
-1.0 to -0.1 28
0.0 to 1.0 38
1.1 to 2.0 12
Greater than 2.0 1


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